1.) Cultural competency occurs when an individual evaluates their personality, values, beliefs, customs, and knowledge, or lack of knowledge regarding different cultures (Purnell, 2005). Then the individual will be better able to understand and respect others' beliefs and values without passing judgment. Cultural awareness is an ongoing process. It requires one to be honest with themselves and communicate with others who are culturally different to understand. This is especially critical in the healthcare arena, as a healthcare professional must make conscious efforts to learn and adopt a patient's culture in the decision-making process and treatment plans that respect the patient's beliefs and values. It would be counter-productive to develop a treatment plan that incorporates blood transfusions when the patient does not believe in blood products.
The Purnell Model can be incorporated into a multitude of different organizations, such as clinical practices, education, research, and administrative services in healthcare (Purnell, 2015). The framework of the model is in a circular formation that encompasses a person, family, community, and global awareness of culture. The center of the model is black which signifies the unknown practices and characteristics of a group or person. The blackened circle is surrounded by 12 cultural domains that are concentrated on common traits of cultures, subcultures, and ethnicities that intersect that create a foundation of awareness of cultures (Purnell, 2005). A healthcare professional can use the model as a guide to gain knowledge about different cultures and how they
affect a healthcare provider's assessment, treatment plans, implementation of treatments, and evaluations of interventions for the patient. This systematic approach improves healthcare providers' ability to individualize care, and promote health, illness, and disease prevention (Purnell, 2005). Do you agree? why or why not?
2.) Due to various perspectives, demands, and interests, cultural competence cannot be defined in a single way and instead has a wide range of meanings and implications. This is the fundamental cause of how different state laws and private sector organizations define cultural competence. Cultural competence in a cross-cultural setting simply refers to a collection of consistent actions, rules, and viewpoints that function as an integrated whole inside an organization or other system to boost capacity for successful and efficient operation. So, the key to cultural competence is appreciating the social and cultural variety. The heart of competence is the appraisal of one's own culture and the promotion of cultural awareness.
To be culturally conscious, one must respect the customs and way of life of others. They shouldn't view it as being disadvantaged or belonging to a lesser class. So, the greatest approach to learn about culture is to interact with people from other cultures and social groups in real life. This really promotes closer relationships between the two parties and fosters cultural competency.
For dealing with subcultures in a society, the Purnell Model provides the most useful approaches and methods. Hence, if the effective strategy of "appreciating diversity" and being aware of them is followed, the entirety of the socially transmitted behavior may be expanded. Do you agree? why or why not?
3.) Cultural competence is a skill that any individual, especially in the healthcare facility, should demonstrate when working with colleagues and clients from other cultural backgrounds. Cultural competency occurs under several conditions and characteristics. The main characteristics of cultural competency include developing an awareness of one's own culture and ensuring one does not have undue influence on other people's culture, demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the client's culture, accepting and respecting the differences in culture, being open to cultural encounters, and being comfortable with cultural encounters (Benuto et al., 2018). In addition, cultural competency occurs when healthcare personnel can adapt care to be congruent with the client's culture. All healthcare providers can be culturally aware through learning, patient or client interviews, and workshops (Curtis et al., 2019). Individuals in this capacity can learn about a specific culture through research and education; therefore, they understand clients' necessary practices and beliefs from the specific culture. On the other hand, if the healthcare providers have limited time, they can involve the patients and their families in interviews and talks to learn more about their culture.
The Purnell model for cultural competence allows individuals to unconsciously learn within their families, which develops into behavior, values, and customs and guides our decisions. In this model, Purnell creates different rings that bring people with the same characteristics together, thus, making them culturally competent (Abrishami, 2018). When working with people from different subcultures, grouping them in the rings, where they have shared characteristics and values, is essential. During the grouping process, the individuals will learn the cultures and information about individuals from the different rings, thus, promoting the cultural competence of individuals from the subcultures. Do you agree? why or why not?
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